Fisetin is a plant polyphenol and part of the flavonoid group in the flavonol sub-category. It is present in many trees and plants, including Eudicotyledons, Acacia greggii, Quebracho colorado, Rhus cotinus, and Butea frondosa. In fact, the earliest record of isolated fisetin dates back to 1833 taken from the smoke bush (Rhus cotinus), so it has been around for a long time.
Its basic chemical characteristics were later defined by J. Schmidt in 1886, but it was not until the 1890s when S. Kostanecki defined its chemical structure and confirmed it via synthesis. Kostanecki launched a study of plant pigments during this period and coined group names for sub-categories, including flavones, flavonol, chromones, and chalcones.
Like all flavonoids, fisetin scavenges for free radicals and fights oxidative stress—the buildup of inflammatory and reactive compounds that damage cells and DNA.
There are some benefite of Fisetin as following:
1.Fisetin and eczema
Atopic dermatitis, a type of eczema, causes redness, itching, and rashes on the skin primarily due to an inflammatory reaction. However, fisetin, a potent anti-inflammatory, has been shown to decrease the number of inflammatory cells and molecules present in the affected skin of mice. These effects make fisetin a possible treatment option in patients with atopic dermatitis, but it requires more research in humans.
2.Fisetin and UV-A damage
The sun produces two types of ultraviolet light, UV-A and UV-B, responsible for adverse effects on the skin. UV-A causes numerous age-related injuries to the skin, such as the development of premature wrinkles, damage to collagen and elastin, and the formation of free radicals. These effects of UV-A can be reduced by fisetin resulting in slower skin aging.
The main two mechanisms fisetin uses to repair and prevent UV-A damage are its ability to neutralize free radicals and reduce the production of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes. The neutralization of free radicals prevents them from causing damage to healthy skin cells. Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes break down the collagen and elastin found in healthy skin, and by reducing levels, fisetin can help improve skin structure.
3.Fisetin and aging
Senescent cells are cells that permanently stop dividing but do not die. These cells that thought to be the driving force in aging and age-related diseases. Fisetin has been shown to target senescence in various tissues and decrease age-related pathologies while also extending the lifespan of mice.
4.Fisetin and Alzheimer's disease
In Mice studies, fisetin has been shown to improve long-term memory, a function that could be very useful in memory disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. It has also been shown to promote the growth of neurons, decrease oxidative stress on brain tissue, and reduce inflammation in brain cells beneficial in preventing Alzheimer's disease.
5.Fisetin and cancer
Fisetin reduces the formation of new blood vessels and slows or prevents the spread of cancer cells. It can inhibit an enzyme known as matrix metalloproteinase-1 used by cancer cells to spread within the body. Together, these properties help to prevent cancer cells from metastasizing and affecting nearby tissues.
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is used in the human body to regulate damaged cells and prevent cells from reproducing when they have significant damage to their DNA. Fisetin has been found to promote apoptosis in cancer cells and suppress their growth. These findings suggest fisetin can initiate cell death in many cancer cells while not harming normal cells.
Animal studies have demonstrated these benefits, typically using mice and in other experimental studies. Although they have yet to be proven in human studies, there is great potential for fisetin to be helpful in various cancers such as lung, prostate, and colon cancer.
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